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Bees produce a substance called propolis. Bee saliva, beeswax, and elements from plants and trees are all mixed in it. Humans may benefit from propolis in terms of health, but more extensive research is required.

Bees seal things using propolis, also known as "bee glue." In the past, people have applied it topically or taken it orally as a supplement. It might not, however, be appropriate for everyone.

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Propolis

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What is propolis?

Bees make propolis, a resinous, waxy substance, by combining beeswax, saliva, and chemicals from various plants and trees. In order to keep outsiders out of the hive, bees utilise it to plug holes. Additionally, propolis possesses antibacterial qualities that may shield bees from infections.

Propolis's constituents can be intricate. More than 300 distinct chemicals have been discovered by scientists in propolis. The beehive's location may affect the precise composition.

As a general rule, propolis generally contains:

Vegetable and tree resins: 50%\sbeeswax: 30% pollen: 5% aromatic and essential oils 10%
Additionally, polyphenols, a class of antioxidants that includes flavonoids, are included in propolis.

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Medicinal properties

Propolis is being used as a kind of medication since the year three hundred BC. Ancient Egyptians used propolis for embalming, and a few doctors used it throughout war II to assist with wound healing. It has the subsequent properties: antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and anti-protozoal (which suggests that it works against parasitic illnesses, like giardiasis), anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Some of the substances gifts in propolis might also have metastatic tumour properties. However, through laboratory and animal studies into the properties of propolis and its parts are promising, few high-quality studies have evidenced its effectiveness as a treatment for specific conditions in humans.

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Potential uses

Modern studies indicates that propolis can be beneficial for: minor wounds, oral hygiene, inflammation and cold sores.

 

The following sections contain a number of the related studies in greater detail.

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Study of the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Romanian propolis

 Teodora Stan1,2, Luminita Marutescu, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc, Cristina Mateescu1, Veronica Lazar 

The antiviral and immunomodulatory activities of propolis: An update and future perspectives for respiratory diseases
Andrea Magnavacca, Enrico Sangiovanni, Giorgio Racagni, Mario Dell'Agli 
DOI: 10.1002/med.21866

Effects of Propolis on Infectious Diseases of Medical Relevance
Nelly Rivera-Yañez, C Rebeca Rivera-Yañez, Glustein Pozo-Molina, Claudia F Méndez-Catalá, Julia Reyes-Reali, María I Mendoza-Ramos, Adolfo R Méndez-Cruz, Oscar Nieto-Yañez 
DOI: 10.3390/biology10050428

Comparative evaluation of aqueous propolis extracts prepared in different ways
E A Vakhonina1, N V Budnikova1, D V Mitrofanov1, L A Repyeva1 and G K Stepantseva1

DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/624/1/012178

Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacities and Enzymatic Inhibitory Activities of Propolis from Different Geographical Areas: Needs for Analytical Harmonization
Sandra M. Osés, Patricia Marcos, Patricia Azofra, Ana de Pablo, Miguel Ángel Fernández-Muíño, and M. Teresa Sancho

doi: 10.3390/antiox9010075

Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits
Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti, Lakhsmi Sammugam, Nagesvari Ramesh, Siew Hua Gan
DOI: 10.1155/2017/1259510

Brazilian green propolis modulates inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in intraperitoneal implants in mice
Luiza D C Lima, Silvia P Andrade 1, Paula P Campos, Lucíola S Barcelos, Frederico M Soriani, Sandra A L Moura, Mônica A N D Ferreira
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-177

In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of bioactive compounds from green propolis obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction
Renata Iara Cavalaro, Richtier Gonçalves da Cruz, Sebastien Dupont, Juliana Maria Leite Nóbrega de Moura Bell, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza Vieira
DOI: 10.1016/j.fochx.2019.100054

Propolis: a new frontier for wound healing?
Simona Martinotti, Elia Ranzato

DOI: 10.1186/s41038-015-0010-z

Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4(+) lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures
Genya Gekker, Shuxian Hu, Marla Spivak, James R Lokensgard, Phillip K Peterson
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.045

Propolis and Its Potential to Treat Gastrointestinal Disorders
Luisa Mota da Silva, Priscila de Souza, Soad K. Al Jaouni, Steve Harakeh, Shahram Golbabapour, and Sérgio Faloni de Andrade

DOI: 10.1155/2018/2035820

Antiviral Activity of Hatay Propolis Against Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2
Ayse Yildirim, Gulay Gulbol Duran, Nizami Duran, Kemal Jenedi, Behiye Sezgin Bolgul, Meral Miraloglu, Mustafa Muz

DOI: 10.12659/msm.897282

STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 as a novel therapeutic agent for renal cell carcinoma

A Horiguchi,T Asano, K Kuroda, A Sato, J Asakuma,1 K Ito, M Hayakawa,1 M Sumitomo, and T Asano1

DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605691

Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits
Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti, Lakhsmi Sammugam, Nagesvari Ramesh, and Siew Hua Gan

DOI: 10.1155/2017/1259510

Physicochemical Characteristics of Brazilian Green Propolis Evaluated During a Six-Year Period
Sonia M de Figueiredo, Nancy S Binda, Sidney A Vieira-Filho, Bruno de Moura Almeida, Sheila R L Abreu, Niraldo Paulino, Glaucia M Pastore, Helia H Sato, Viviane C T Theodoropoulos, Eulália V Tapia, Yong K Park, Rachel B Caligiorne

DOI: 10.2174/1570163813666161220151425

Treatment of acne with a combination of propolis, tea tree oil, and Aloe vera compared to erythromycin cream: two double-blind investigations
Mazzarello V , Donadu MG , Ferrari M , Piga G , Usai D, Zanetti S, Sotgiu MA 

DOI: 10.2147/CPAA.S180474

Propolis improves pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Umar Zayyanu Usman, Ainul Bahiyah Abu Bakar, and Mahaneem Mohamedcorresponding

DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2391-6

Propolis for the Treatment of Onychomycosis
Flavia Franco Veiga, Maiara Ignacio Costa, Érika Seki Kioshima Cótica, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski,1 and Melyssa Negri

DOI: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_365_17

Propolis improves pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Umar Zayyanu Usman, Ainul Bahiyah Abu Bakar, and Mahaneem Mohamedcorresponding

DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2391-6

Comparative evaluation of aqueous propolis extracts prepared in different ways
E A Vakhonina, N V Budnikova, D V Mitrofanov, L A Repyeva, and G K Stepantseva
DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/624/1/012178

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